DEMOGRAPHIC ANTECEDENTS OF UPWARD INFLUENCE STRATEGY IN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS IN NIGERIA.
ARUOREN, Emmanuel Ejiroghene
Department of Business Administration, Faculty of the Social Sciences,
Delta State University, Abraka.
This study investigated the strategies used by employees to sway their superiors in public organizations in Nigeria, and to examine if demographic attributes sway the adoption of such strategies. The upward influence strategies examined were showing expertise, manipulation, blocking, defiance, ingratiation, rational persuasion, exchanging benefits, personalized help, showing dependency, and diplomacy. Three hundred and fifty-seven questionnaires were given to Local Government Council workers in Delta State, Nigeria. Results indicated that the popularly used strategy was rational persuasion, while the least used strategy was defiance. Gender difference was found in all ten strategies examined. However, age showed differences in ingratiation, manipulation, personalized help, blocking, and rational persuasion. Furthermore, married employees showed differences in manipulation, and showing expertise. Overall, the study supported the notion that adoption of upward influence strategies may be influenced by demographic characteristics. It was therefore recommended that managers, supervisors and subordinates should understand that demographic factors influence the adoption of upward influence strategies among employees.Keywords: Upward influence strategies, gender, age, marital status, demographic factors